全球漁業的希望繫於「集體權利」?

mmw_fishery_article「公有地悲劇」是全球漁場過度捕撈的一個結構困境,BBC在日前一篇冰島大學Ragnar Arnason教授的專訪中就認為,只有透過「建立全球社群、分享集體權利」的方式,才能夠找到解決目前漁業過度捕撈問題的出路。

在專訪中,Arnason教授認為漁業資源衰竭的原因主要有二:

improvements in the technology available to fishing fleets and the fast rise in the human population and its purchasing power.

他認為,過去把捕撈權視為每個國家或公司「個別」的權利,造成了各國漁民自私自利地為了短期利益竭澤而漁,他因此認為應該把漁權當作一種「長期的集體權利」:

“These rights are for all the people in that community but the hope is that communities that are reasonably homogenous so they may be able to overcome the common property problem and install, enforce and maintain their own fisheries management system.”

He added that fishermen, on the whole, were recognising the benefits of this shift in the management regimes but a potential hurdle remained.

“The problem they are facing is that before you get the gains, you have to rebuild the fish stocks,” he told BBC News.

“You have to cut back on fishing and allow the fish stocks to rebuild. During this interval, there will be fewer catches and less profit – the benefits appear later.

“The global community – in the guise of the UN, World Bank etc – is keen to move the world in this direction, so I am optimistic and I think things are moving in the right direction.”

對於他的樂觀期待,你的看法是?

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